DNA Roots

Mitochondial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from mothers to their children, but only daughters transfer this genetic material to their children. Thus, while a son will have his mother's mtDNA sequence, the son cannot transfer the mtDNA to his children. Daughters will transfer to the mtDNA sequence to both their sons and daughters. Mutations in mtDNA occur extremely slowly; the sequence can remain stable over thousands of years. So it is possible to have the same mtDNA sequence as another person without any close relationship; the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for two individuals with the same mtDNA sequence may lived several thousands of years ago.
Test results for three maternal (mtDNA) lines are presented at the links below, along with brief discussions of the results.
The genetic material for Y-DNA tests is found on the Y chromosome passed down only from fathers to sons. The DNA sequence remains essentially unaltered except for occasional mutations. While these mutations are random events, by looking at many different markers it is statistically possible to predict when the most recent common ancestor (MCRA) of two related individuals lived. Conversely, Y-DNA test results can determine that two individuals sharing the same surname are not related.
Test result for five paternal (Y-DNA) lines are presented at the links below, along a brief discussions of the results.

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